The development of nuclear fusion is expected to reach new dimensions with the construction of the ITER experiment, which will be able to demonstrate the proof of principle for nuclear fusion. The question then arises as to what benefits and what kind of problems would be connected to the widespread use of nuclear fusion. Numerous studies predict that the increase in energy demand will occur mainly in countries as Asia, South America and Africa. Only technologies which can be applied in these recently emerging markets will be able to have an impact on the overall global development.

Invited experts:

Prof. N. Nakićenović,
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Technical University, Vienna (Austria)

Prof. R.P. Shukla,
Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad (India) (not participating)

Prof. Y. Huo, Zheng Zhou University, Zheng Zhou (China)

Dr. J.-H. Han,
Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

Dr. J. Sheffield,
Joint Institute for Energy and Environment (JIEE), University of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA)

Dr. H. Kato,
Energy Analyst, International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris (France)

Dr. J. F. Clarke,
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland (USA)

Dr. F. Müller,
Stiftung für Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin (Germany)

Dr. B. Richter,
Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany)

The joint IPP-EFDA-JIEE Workshop organised by Dr. T. Hamacher took place at the Association Euratom-IPP in Garching (Germany) on December 10th – 12th 2003 and addressed this question with particular reference to developing countries, such as India and China. On the first day invited experts from China, Korea, the US, Germany, as well as from IIASA and IEA discussed the global and regional energy scenarios and the perspective for R & D for nuclear fusion. Prof. N. Nakićenović presented the energy development dilemma of China and India between economically and environmentally driven scenarios. Regarding the future environmental commitments of transition countries, the presentation prepared by Prof. R.P. Shukla pointed out that only in the case of carbon restrictions fusion will make it into the scenarios. Prof. Y. Huo also referred to the massive use of coal in China. However, to avoid future environmental damage, nuclear energy – fission and fusion – is and will become a very important component in the rapidly evolving chinese energy system. Dr. J. F. Clarke presented nuclear pathways to a carbon-free future.

On the second day resource availability and technological capabilities were discussed. Dr. J.-H. Han presented the Korean fission programme and Dr. H. Kato showed recently elaborated scenarios on the availability of gas and oil in the world. Dr. J. Sheffield also focussed on world oil use as a central theme, presenting the analysis made by Greene et al. (ORNL/TM- 2003/259). Other topics addressed included energy and geopolitics in Asia in the 21st century, presented by Dr. F. Müller, and the problem of proliferation, presented by Dr. B. Richter.

It was concluded that the future world energy demand, driven mainly by the need to raise standards of living across the world and constrained by climate change considerations, will require the introduction of new energy technologies on a massive scale, so that a global development effort in deploying new technologies is required. All energy sources will be required to meet the varying needs of the different countries and to enhance the security of each one against the kind of energy crisis that has occurred in the past. In fact, fusion energy is viewed as an important potential option in the latter half of this century for transitional and developing countries, including China, India and Korea – countries which are home to more than a third of the world’s population.

The presentations and a summary of the workshop will be available by the end of February on: