Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Netherlands, operates Magnum PSI, and the Pilot-PSI devices, both linear plasma generators used to investigate plasma-surface interactions. Other linear plasma generators for studying plasma wall interactions, PSI-2 and JULE-PSI, are operated by Forschungszentrum Jülich. In southern France, the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, upgraded the Tore Supra tokamak into the WEST, which is now used as a test platform for plasma facing components.
Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER)'s linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI is unique in its capability to expose wall materials to the punishing conditions that exist at the fusion reactor exhaust (divertor). With Magnum-PSI, DIFFER and its international users investigate and develop wall materials that can withstand divertor conditions in ITER and fusion reactors that will be developed in the future.
The JULE-PSI project envisages a linear plasma device installed inside a hot cell. It will be capable of testing materials activated by the neutron irradiation. Tritiated samples can also be handled, though no tritium plasma operation is foreseen. The linear plasma device PSI-2 served as a pilot experiment for the JULE-PSI project.
The former Tore Supra tokamak which has evolved into WEST (W – tungsten Environment Steady-state Tokamak) to test the ITER divertor. Salient features of WEST include unique long pulse capabilities, high level of additional power and operation with actively cooled components including an actively cooled tungsten divertor.